– Essays –
[Coming soon: Essay 2. Earthly and Celestial Russia, Part 2
and Essay 3. “Pan Mongolism! The name is monstrous…”]
(Click for: Original Russian)
Now we shall proceed with the consideration of what, properly speaking, constitutes the primary object of these essays. However also here in addition to the above, in some kind of methodological introduction there will be more to say about the fact that the method of historical symptomatology may be understood, at least in general terms, only on the condition that the reader is clear about the basic principles of the general methodology of Rudolf Steiner’s Spiritual Science. Our consideration requires a certain preparation from the reader, necessary to him, in the first place, so that he will be able to relate to it without prejudice and not with a trivial mind. This is especially important in view of the extremely emotional relationship not only in Russia, but throughout the world to the question which we are here attempting to study from an anthroposophical point of view.
Only the understanding of that which constitutes the method of historical symptomatology as a part of general anthroposophical methodology is capable of protecting the reader from the perception that what will be discussed further is simply a political consideration, although it is dedicated to a question which has been politicized to the highest degree. It would be better for those for whom such a condition isn’t feasible not to read what will be further discussed here at all.
However it is necessary to once again remind those who concern themselves with the study of Spiritual Science as well, that its primary goal is knowledge and that for its objective realization it is necessary to renounce any sympathy and antipathy toward the object of cognition, whatever it may be. One must cognize from out of the I, bringing all biases, prejudices, preferences, etc. into a neutral state. Letting them run amok we will not objectively recognize the existing phenomena but rather merely our personal relationship to them and in this manner we head in the opposite direction of truth.
Furthermore one should be reminded that real anthroposophists, i.e. they who attempt to become scientists also of the supersensible world, usually do not engage in politics. To them the ideology of any party or political orientation is alien, being false due to its onesided direction. To them is alien any kind of group convictions and moods, group egoism, or of giving oneself over to the will of group consciousness whether international, national, nationalistic or any other, – in a word, all that without which there is no politics in the generally accepted sense of the term.
For one who has entered into Rudolf Steiner’s Spiritual Science knowledge is a duty. And there is no field of knowledge from which he would turn away only because someone has branded it “reactionary”, “unpatriotic”, “undemocratic”, “alien to the spirit of humanism”, “phony liberal”, “incompatible with the civic stand of a decent person”, “hostile to love of country”, etc.
All arguments of this kind in the end are in essence merely tricks used by parties and worldviews in the battle for the mastering of mass consciousness. In the centers of the parties themselves corresponding experts study everything that is going on in the world in order to then effectively act in it, and then is proposed to people of so-called “good will” that they act, without thinking, in the interests of an alien will, taking it for their own.
An anthroposophist also strives to understand everything, he rejects any taboos on knowledge, yet he, in fact, limits himself only to knowledge, which, however, doesn’t mean that he remains inactive. No, it is simply that his activity bears another character. He strives to impart to it a substantial character, and activity of such kind isn’t unknown to the modern world. (We should emphasize: strives – from which, of course, it does not follow that it turns out always and for everyone, for this reason in Anthroposophy dogmatism is completely inadmissible.) An anthroposophist puts the fruits of his knowledge as it were “at the discretion” of the spiritual world of the divine hierarchical beings: Spirits of peoples, Spirits of historical epochs, the Spirit of all of mankind. He loves the land, the people among which he incarnated according to his karma, yet, as a true Christian, he is an internationalist, he strives to put himself at the service of Archangel Michael, the Spirit of our time. And this striving in him isn’t abstract but rather entirely concrete. It comes from the understanding which is accessible to all of the fact that Christ came to all people, that each human being is dear to Him in equal measure. And anyone who carries on about Christ’s loyalty to any particular people is crudely lying.
Anthroposophically realized knowledge, especially in the social-political sphere, refrains from moral valuations, holding true to the Manichean principle in the understanding of the nature of good and evil, for which the greatest impartiality possible in their cognition is required. And cognizing them is possible only through ascending from the phenomenology of the earthly plane to the archetypal phenomenology of the spiritual, where the origins of all that happens with us on the earth is rooted.
Remaining faithful to all these principles of knowledge when entering into the field of occult-political phenomenology, indeed particularly in our time, indeed particularly in regard to the question of what is now happening in Ukraine where all national and political biases are charged to the limit, where sympathy and antipathy aren’t opposing each other, but rather love and hatred, and then even simply two hatreds, – preserving a calm objectivity in such condition can likely only be managed by the rare reader. On the other hand he will be all the more valuable: valuable in the work of the real transformation of the evil of our time, which is acquiring an especially dangerous character, into the forces of good, which are able to save our civilization from its ultimate decline. For events not of a local, but of world historical significance are unfolding before us. The refusal to understand them in the indicated sense would signify sheer capitulation before the forces of evil.
In calling upon the reader to remain faithful to anthroposophical principles of cognition we are not at all suggesting that everything that we have expounded upon be categorically accepted by the reader. Moreover, we are even interested in having the reader doubt all of it at the beginning and in him then wanting to study and investigate it himself. The reader is simply being offered a particular view of a particular person concerning the very recent events of our time. Their meaning is extraordinarily deep, and it cannot be conceived of that someone solitarily, in one article, could exhaustively explain it. Of ourselves we can only say that what we are putting forth isn’t taken “out of the blue”, as they say, and that behind it stands the experience of several decades of the intensive study of Anthroposophy, especially its methodology. And so, building on that basis, we propose to consider the Ukrainian events (and they are not only Ukrainian) from two points of view: the outer, purely political, and the esoteric, spiritual-social, or occult-political. Such an approach shall allow us to raise ourselves from the phenomenology of the events to their archetypal phenomenology, i.e. to a complex of laws of a different order, primarily of a spiritual order, which is governing them and without the knowledge of which it is impossible to even draw close to their understanding.
So, let’s turn our attention first of all to what particularly catches the eye when we read newspapers or watch television programs which discuss these events. First of all, it becomes obvious that they aggravate the relationship between Russia and the West. They are, as it were, assumed to be the start of a new cold war. Moreover, in this the great opposition of East and West is also rising. With these events in some cases the foundations are being laid, and in others what has already, earlier, been laid long-term – the far-reaching tendencies of international and even racial relations – is being brought into action.
It goes without saying how very much the position of Russia in the world is being complicated! Perestroika, having given a certain freedom, lead her economically, as its called “to the point of no return” or, as they say in Russia, “to a drunken stupor”.The stagnation of social life and the growth of moral relativism threaten to overgrow into some kind of new, truly frightening quality. Here, it would seem, one would need to start with something different both in Russia as well as in Ukraine: with an effective fight against corruption, with the renewal of the institution of rights, with the curbing of the utterly wild form of capitalism that has been imposed on us which is even worse than what Marx had criticized.
The events in Ukraine, it is true, were not started by Russia. She has simply been placed before them. They constitute nothing other than the attempt of another repetition of the already well-known script, the “Orange Revolution”. Revolutions of this kind have already went, like a tsunami, through northern Africa, leapt into the Middle East and one of them has already happened in Ukraine itself. In result of its repetition now the active president was not deposed but rather simply ousted. And after all he wasn’t a “dictator”, he was elected democratically on the basis of general elections. We need not at all consider the question of what kind of person he was. – In any case no better or worse than all the other presidents in the world. The duration of his presidency was constitutionally limited, by law, and he had no intention of breaking that law. Why wasn’t the expiration of that term awaited and simultaneously, again in accordance with the constitution, the attempt made to prepare and advance other, more worthy candidates? – We should consider things in approximately this way in accordance with the democratic principles of political correctness accepted throughout the world. For the time being we won’t consider the fact that these principles are mere maneuvers.
But the “revolution” took place. A newer “democracy” revolted against and defeated the old “democracy” which had its beginnings back with Yeltsin. The country remained, in fact, without an active government, while being torn apart by national contradictions and in this being plunged into even more hopeless, dire need. And these contradictions are old and utterly irreconcilable. The western part of the country inclines towards Western Europe, to the European Union and to NATO. And precisely this radically changed Russia’s relationship to Ukraine. Previously Russia never gave up hope that sooner or later Ukraine would again be united with her. And then, when that hope began to crumble in earnest the question arose: what is to be done with Crimea? This question is not so much territorial or national as much as strategic, seeing as Crimea has always been Russia’s most convenient passage not only in the Black Sea, but into the Mediterranean, into the Atlantic and into the world’s oceans in general. From the point of view of the state questions of this nature bear vital importance and for the time being one cannot form a judgment about them from the point of view of, say, “wholesale” pacifism.
Further, by virtue of the facts of history alone it must be admitted that Crimea is a part of Russia as Great Russia (Ukraine being Little Russia in the strictly territorial sense; those terms have arisen precisely in that sense ). A completely arbitrary Bolshevist dictator brought up in a Stalinist clique, Khrushchev took and simply handed Crimea over to the Ukrainian SSR in 1954 (which, by the way, doesn’t exist anymore) – as a gift! And then the Ukrainian SSR itself also arose as a result of such completely arbitrary slicings of Russian territory by the “dictators of the proletariat” into, speaking figuratively, “federal republics”. The impression is created that all of these dictators already knew something about what should burst out in 1991 and 2014. But that question extends beyond the bounds of our article.
Those who now attempt to rule in Kiev declare: “Crimea was, is and will be Ukrainian!” – Well, yes, it was. And for how long? – Sixty years. And whose was it before that? – Russian. And how long? – Starting in 1783, i.e. 230 years. The idle critic will now exclaim: And still before that whose was it? By what right did Russia take it from Turkey? – By the same right by which the Anglo-Saxons settled in the North American continent which belonged to the Indians, by which in the epoch of the great migrations of people into Europe various tribes came and settled on the lands which had belonged to the Celts, etc. It was an epoch of the formation of national states. Today it is simply a fact of history, it is over. And one cannot form judgments on international rights on the basis of the conventions of that time. And although the capture, the removal of territory continues today it is considered a crime. The view of this question from the point of view of the dual, sensible-supersensible reality is expressed by Rudolf Steiner in the following way: the borders of the states of Europe “have been formed in the course of the centuries, you can study this throughout history. Yet you will attain to the insight through a truly impartial examination of history that these states, starting from the great Russia and down to the smallest forms, have been formed under the influence of the understanding of Christ, that is of the understanding of Christ as it had taken hold in Europe at the time of the so-called migrations of peoples, in the time of the fall of the Roman Empire.” And further, transitioning up to our time, Rudolf Steiner goes on to say that the borders which we set after the war of 1914 are unnatural and will not be preserved in the future. (GA 196, 6 Febr. 1920, p.153) The same thing must be said about the borders of 1917, and those of 1939, of 1945, and of 1991, for the understanding of which it will still be necessary to draw from knowledge of the supersensible leaders of peoples, of the Spirits of peoples, which we will do below.
It is senseless in our time to appeal to the fact that at some time Crimea belonged to the Crimean khan (and still earlier the Scythians lived there, and once even Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons). Finally, we need not think that Ukraine intends to return Crimea to Turkey or to the Crimean khan which no longer exists. And if one hypothetically considers it then indeed not only Turkey would begin laying claim to Crimea but Greece as well, the Genoese would interfere, and the descendents of the Goths, and then, if one were successful in conclusively demonstrating that the Skythians were the ancestors of the Slavs then Crimea would, by virtue of a very ancient right, be turned over to Russia all the same. The single logical objection that Kiev could make to Moscow would be to say: why are you occupying East Prussia, which never belonged to you, if you don’t allow us to occupy Crimea? You criticize the USA for having double standards, but yours are just the same! And Moscow would have nothing to trump such a “card”. The image of cards here is in its proper place, for everything that people have anything to do with in modern world politics is a like a game of cards in the end – a dishonest, crooked game. And were Kiev to make such an objection, we would see how the whole world would shush them up with a wave (and even in Germany such an action would be called “politically incorrect”).
Now let us turn to something else. We ask ourselves: what use is the current “orange revolution” in Kiev to the West, and in the first place, to the US? Western Europe, it is plain to see, has no need of it, and Europe is only protesting under American pressure. But to the US it is of great use indeed. Who in the world doesn’t know or talk about the difficult, actually inescapable financial position of the United States? Their debts have become totally unpayable. The prestige of the world hegemony is falling for the world has had nothing to be afraid of. “World terrorism” is at the moment serving as a great support in this regard, however people are beginning to speak about its true causes ever more frequently. If Europe were frightened by a new Russian threat – now that would be another matter entirely! The instinct for self-preservation would stop all mouths; there would need to be security forces, and security forces must be paid and we’d be better off not asking them about their old debts. And Europe has already plunged into such a position: the cooperation between Russia and NATO has been terminated and through that a wide door has been flung open to an arms build-up, etc.
The major role of the USA in the events in Ukraine is so obvious that we won’t even discuss it. The “Orange (color) Revolutions” have generally become the new method of realizing the global world project of creating a single state for all of humanity. For this purpose in all states all the existing institutions of power should be destroyed which are based on the old principle of the unitary state. In all countries there should rule a condition of permanent chaos directed from without until, at last, everything will be reunited in a singular, and now planetary state.
And so, an “orange revolution” does not bear within itself anything natural. And here it is also necessary to comprehend that in the modern world, in the state into which humanity has been brought, it is impossible to have any kind of natural mass protest. It may ripen in separate people, but separate people are disconnected, no one know how many of them there are (this information is controlled by the press, which fully serves these or those centers of major power). For a protest you need a leader, and he is not going to be allowed to appear simply from out of the people. But if somebody needs it a protest can be created out of whatever’s handy and however many seemingly authentically agitated people can be gathered as is convenient. Their quantity is a purely financial question. Revolutions are very expensive. If you gather more money than someone else was able to gather for a revolution, the revolution can be neutralized peacefully, for example by way of even mightier mass demonstrations of the “loyalists” of the existing regime.
In this way, from the political point of view, the events in Ukraine have been summoned up artificially, and the matter stands this way even in the cases of demonstrations of the most tribal nationalists. However still this does not hold the full truth of what is taking place. Major world political manipulations are not contrived without taking the already existing profound contradictions in their objects into account. And from that point of view the cause of what is happening now in Ukraine also contains in itself something natural, and namely: the opposition of the western and eastern parts of the modern population of Ukraine, which turned out to be together not by virtue of natural, historically formed circumstances, but rather merely thanks to political manipulations.
Here we should take account of the following. The processes of the merging of peoples happens on its own, but it takes centuries and it should begin in the sphere of cultural relationships and the continually broadening unhindered socializing of people, and also economic and trade relations. The distinctions between peoples are very significant and evolutionarily conditioned. They have come to be by virtue of the diversity of tasks which have been accomplished by various peoples in the process of the general cultural-historical development of humanity. These tasks have been impressed into peoples by their lofty Spirit-Leaders, beings from the Hierarchy of the Archangels.
The Slavic tribes, still at the dawn of their becoming distinct peoples, began to experience the activity of various Archangels on themselves, these having received from Hierarchies standing higher than they the tasks of creating peoples from the material of various tribes, in order to bring development into accord with the requirements of the further individualization of man. The activity of the Archangels took effect right down into human beings’ physical bodies. With time various national cultures arose, languages separated out and became distinct, national characters were formed, etc. And now, before attempting to unite and divide these distinct peoples it is necessary to study well anthroposophical ethnology.
There is a certain unity which integrates all Slavic peoples into itself, just as there exists a unity of the peoples of the Germanic race. Yet also the differences within these unities are exceedingly great. One cannot fight with these differences, one must consider them very earnestly when politically cutting up countries and the borders of states.
Speaking generally, in a certain sense the “surveyors” of world politics do consider this, but, unfortunately, not from the point of view of the interests of the peoples themselves, but to their detriment. Allowing the Soviet Union to advance their borders to the west in 1939 these “surveyors” knew that with that they were laying a time bomb in it, that by virtue of the very laws of world evolution it would not be able to hold onto those lands. In the sense of such politics Russia was allowed (even ordered, but that’s a separate question) to keep Poland in her possession in the 19th century, and after World War II to occupy part of Germany, etc. The outbreak of the irreconcilable contradiction between western Ukraine, i.e. Galicia, and eastern Ukraine is nothing other than the detonation of that mine which was laid in 1939. And the conflict between Ukraine and Russia is a mine of another kind which was laid under Trotsky and Lenin and reinforced under Khrushchev. These are mines calculated to blast apart a unified national organism.
The differences between the Slavic peoples come up every time an attempt is made to unite them, say, in the spirit of Pan-Slavic ideology, understood purely politically (i.e. not in the sense if spiritual life and culture), or yet more crudely, as took place after World War I, when at the behest of world political powers, for example, a new “people” was created: the “Czechoslovakians”. It was compelled to exist throughout the entire course of the rule of Bolshevism. Yet no symbiosis of any kind took place. As soon as Bolshevism fell these two peoples separated. And thank God they did it in a civilized manner. For another made-up people, for the “Yugoslavians”, this process is proceeding in an extremely tragic manner. In the care of Ukraine and Galicia we stand before a choice: whether this separation will be realized in the Czechoslovakian or the Yugoslavian fashion. For Galicia previously, i.e. before Stalin and Hitler, was never a part of Russia. She was a part of Austria-Hungary, and before that a part of the greater Polish-Lithuanian kingdom, but in all these cases separatism arose in her, the striving to be an autonomous formation. And this shouldn’t be likened to, say, the desire of the Basques to secede from Spain, or of northern Italy from the rest of the country or other such cases (in our day there are a multitude of them). In all of these questions, if we wish to really take them up, it is necessary to be able to form judgments from the point of view of the supersensible leadership of peoples, of their actual tasks as a part of the general development of the cultural epoch. Otherwise we run the risk of confusing the will of the Archangel-Leaders of peoples with the “right of peoples to self-determination” declared by Woodrow Wilson, with the help of which the world is being plunged into the permanently increasing chaos of unfounded separatism.
The Slavs of Eastern Europe took on the form of a people living in the mood of expectancy. Its task in the modern world is to prepare to way into the next, the 6th, Slavic-Germanic cultural epoch, when each separate human being will begin ascending to the next evolutionary stage and to a new form of his individual consciousness. This is a very important evolutionary stage. It signifies the metamorphosis of man as a species. He will take hold of the Spirit-Self, of Manas, i.e. of superconsciousness as completely individual consciousness.
The western Slavs within this great general human task are a kind of outpost of the 6th cultural epoch. To them belongs the task of, not politically, but of culturally, spiritually merging with the impulses of Western European, and especially Middle European culture, of the vanguard of the Slavic-Germanic cultural epoch, and in the first place now – with Goetheanism and with Anthroposophy, but, of course, also with the entire classical heritage of European culture and to help these impulses into the future. The “western Slav element”, Rudolf Steiner tell us, “must be thought of as having a relationship to Western Europe differing from that of the eastern Slav element. Therefore, only those who do not think in accordance with human evolution as a whole, but solely in accordance with the English-speaking Empire, will want to assimilate Poland in the Russian Empire. … I cannot speak today about the checkered destiny of the Polish people. But I just want to say that the spiritual culture of the Polish people found one of its culminations in the Polish messianic movement — let everybody think what they like about this reality — which, out of the substance of the Polish people contains spiritual feelings and spiritual ideas belonging to mankind as a whole. We are speaking here, in a way, about that Gnostic element which corresponds to one of the three soul components which are to flow from the western Slavs to Central Europe. The second element lies in the Czech people… Here is the second soul component inserted into Central Europe out of the Slav element. And the third component is from the southern Slavs. These three soul components push westwards like three cultural peninsulas and most certainly do not belong to the eastern European Slav element” (GA 174, 15 Jan. 1917, p. 169).
Rudolf Steiner is touching on the extraordinarily profound question of the genesis of the Slavic peoples. We cannot fully explore it in a single essay. We shall only indicate a statement of Rudolf Steiner’s in which he speaks of the interconnections of the Finns’ group experience of the threefold soul with the geographic configuration of their country, with the three gulfs of the Baltic Sea (GA 158). The Finns’ instinctive experience of the threefold soul was impressed upon the Eastern Slavs during the formation of their statehood, which we will speak about in more detail below. In Rudolf Steiner’s above cited thought we recognize yet another process in the becoming of the threefold soul which came from the East into the West and was objectified in the western Slavic element. Doubtlessly, we have here to do with the preparation of the birth of the Spirit-Self in the threefold soul. Here there is also something to be said about how necessary for this work peaceful, friendly relations between peoples, mutual assistance and collaboration are, instead of the wild battle of nationalisms. However the normal course of evolution also has enemies, even cosmic ones. Thus we observe the growing hostility between peoples. It is particularly easy to stir them up among Slavs, who by virtue of their tasks are utterly apolitical, even antipolitical, it is extraordinarily easy to manipulate them. And the “Maidan” in Kiev is a convincing confirmation of this, but, of course, not it alone. There have been the “Maidans” of the world wars as well and there exists the danger that there will be others yet.
Slavs are particularly easy to manipulate politically, seeing as by virtue of their great, generally human tasks they are compelled to remain utter children in politics. One should know that this is not an inadequacy of theirs, though in the modern world it brings endless miseries. For their development ahrimanization, falling into materialism is especially contraindicated. When this happens with them they become similar to the people of Western Europe, but for those who have totally different tasks in development the especially difficult karma of modern civilization itself has destined the plunge into material culture and abstract intellectuality. (Russians, by the way, feel all of this but don’t understand it correctly and begin to boast about the breadth and unpredictability of the Russian character and look down on the, as they see it, philistine and dogmatic spirit of Europeans.)
Europeans have the task of heightening intellectual, logical thinking and on this path to strive to ascend from the lower “I” to the Higher I. (That step in development which sooner of later no one will avoid.) The Slavs, precisely by virtue of the tasks of taking hold of the Spirit-Self, the latter should already now, as it were, dawn upon them, but not individually (for which reason there is no reason to boast here), to dwell in a state of a kind of soaring above the material world, yet, of course, without losing connection with it. For this they require a completely different structure of the life of the state, more plastic than the structure of the unitary states in the epoch of materialism. And they are seeking after just this, for this they struggle, but from without they are constantly being pointed in the wrong direction, and primarily away from real spirituality, from spiritualism.
When materialism swallows up Slavic peoples all the same, the activity of the so-called “doubles” of their folk spirit increases: both Ahrimanic and, by virtue of the law of polarity, Luciferic. This, for example, spurs the Poles to dream of a great Poland “from sea to sea”, the Russians to dream of the “Turkish straits”, of the “third Rome”. Under the influence of the double Russians confuse Russian nature with ‘Russian nationalism’ (rusizismus)  and precisely in the spirit of ‘Russian nationalism’ they hope to unite the western, southern and eastern Slavs and to dominate over them, without understanding that in this they would destroy their missions which have been designated to them in the movement of the modern cultural epoch into the next, which constitutes a great evil. On this tragic, crude misconception, which, by the way, some southern Slavs share (it could be heard in Serbia, in our day: “It’s too bad that we don’t share a border with Russia so that she could liberate us, too!”), the whole politics of the Balkans was built already under the Russian Empire and its getting tangled up in World War I; this misconception lies in the foundations of the ideology of the “Third Rome” and in the intention of acquiring Constantinople and the gulfs. Bolshevism, too, slid all the more into political Panslavism and ‘Russian nationalism’, became an ever more national socialism, or better said, nationalistic, and was doomed just for that reason alone. Thus appears Russia’s destructive role in Europe. In using her tragic errors she was turned into an instrument of world politics, into an instrument of great destructive power, because of which in the first place her peoples suffer and await the opportunity to disassociate from her.
An example we gave in the first essay shows how ‘Russian nationalism’ takes action at present, – we have in mind the demonstration in Simferopol which was organized in favor of the unification of Crimea with Russia, where an old woman carrying a portrait of Stalin in her hands was standing in the very first row of the protestors, directly in from of the television cameras. Of course, this is no isolated incident. That portrait is being waved often there, and together with it the Soviet flag with the hammer and sickle. And when monuments to Lenin are taken down in Ukraine in Moscow it’s called russophobia! In just such a way, through the use of ideological means of all kinds the “gathering of lands” is taking its course in Russia: under the banner of the restoration of nationalistic Bolshevism! And that implies that the end of Russia’s sufferings are as yet unforeseen. And how can we not understand those who wish to stay away from such a Russia?
But all of this is just the very surface of what is happening. And we must be able to penetrate into its depths to understand the question: what is Russia to do?
If you read the world press attentively you can feel in it the presence of some kind of plan behind it quite distinctly, you can feel that the West and the USA, in spite of the threats to impose severe sanctions all the same look favorably on the return of Ukraine to Russia on the whole, but without the territory she captured in 1939. Here it is only necessary to not allow the loud clatter of the “drums” of sanctions and threats to dim one’s consciousness. These cannot be avoided in such a case, but one must listen to how the “drums” sound and compare that sound with how it was, for example, in the 30’s.
We understand that what’s been said now should certainly arouse bewilderment. As a matter of fact: well who in the West could benefit from this and how? (The [Russian] patriotic press simply tears its hair out trying to show how greedily, constantly and insidiously the West strives to destroy Russia.) To investigate this question we must turn to a different kind of political science – to conspirology. We already spoke of our relationship to it and our understanding of it in the first essay as well as in our other works. For those interested, more can be found, for example, in the third volume of “Microcosm and Macrocosm”.
In the events taking place in connection with Ukraine a certain plan which extends into the past comes into view. They are certainly not spontaneous, ostensibly called forth through the population’s dissatisfaction with corruption, growing poverty, the dominance of criminality, etc. They were planned, and one could have easily found out about this back in the early 90’s, at the beginning of perestroika. To answer the question: where and by whom were they planned? – is not simple, especially to the unprepared reader. Thus preliminarily we will put it this way: they were planned in the center of that occult-political power which, acting behind the curtains of outer events, collected the power capable of planning the course of history itself, to take its flow under their own control. We shall name that power the “Twilight Society”. At first this plan was brought into action through the handing over of Crimea to Ukraine by Khrushchev. It was a true “Trojan horse”. And it was simultaneous with the bringing into action of the plan for perestroika, which had ceased to be conspirological in 1989 – 1991. To understand this matter one must comprehend the course of world history in broad strokes, so to speak, one must also comprehend that after the conclusion of World War I not one sovereign state remained in the world, also including the USA. From then on history has been moved through the battle of the supernational plots of the “Twilight Society” which is inspired by the cosmic forces of the spirits of obstruction. And the American who said that history ended was right.
Could the battle of these plots be called a conspiracy? – It could, if first of all we don’t have in mind circles of politicians and financiers joined together in some kind of secret unions, but rather that part of the spiritual, hierarchical beings which oppose normal evolution. Yes, they use people, seeing as their interests extend down to the earthly human being, but to merely speak here of some people’s thirst to rule over humanity would mean impoverishing the concept of conspiracy. Mighty supersensible beings want to rule. And that means that the matter concerns the intentions of transforming the entire human race in its essence. Here, for example, it may be said, that the modern gender initiatives are a manifestation of these intentions – such is the politics of this type, if it is politics at all. The majority of people are simply incapable of knowing about this, and thus such intentions remain occult, i.e. secret. But then if someone devises something unkind against you, and you don’t know about it, if you find out about it you will call it a conspiracy. The concept of conspiracy should be taken as a technical term. It doesn’t fit into the scale of the evil that man is capable of, for in the latter lies the instinct for self-preservation. These circles of people who have put themselves at the service of the forces of global degradation work against their own existence. They are in this way not conspirators, but are rather themselves the victims of the conspiracy of metaphysical forces.
The actions of good powers also take place in the sense of the above mentioned conspiracy, only in a reversed sense. For they, putting it simply, conspired to save man, not having waited for when he would understand what is good for him. Someday he will understand this, but it is necessary that it doesn’t come too late.
The human great initiates are servants of the Hierarchies of normal development. They assist people in walking the path of normal evolution. But there are also initiates among those who serve very great, cosmic evil. World politics is occult because it is led by Ahrimanic initiates. In the 20th century, at the threshold of the incarnation of Ahriman they have especially gathered strength having thoroughly subjugated the marionette-like governments of all countries, subjecting the broadest masses of the population of the earth to colossal psychological processing and having put practically all aspects of culture and social relations at their service. On the pages of newspapers, on television we don’t see the faces of those who belong to the “Twilight Society”. For them, showing themselves to the mass of the people they have themselves psychologically modified is simply humiliating. They are fully attentive to that higher which for them is the “patron” himself, i.e. Ahriman. On the earth there are also servants of even more frightening powers – the Asuric beings, the retarded Archais,the Spirits of Personality; there are, naturally, also the servants of Lucifer. A true political scientist should gain an understanding of this.
Anthroposophy speaks of the opposition of our world sphere which is evolving in the totality of seven eons by another world sphere alien to us. It separated out from our evolutionary cycle and strives to abrogate it and begin its own, distinct cycle, where the existence of man as a creation of the divine is not foreseen. Obviously, such a gigantic question cannot be examined in the confines of a single article. It must be said that the writing of articles on the basis of anthroposophical knowledge is certainly no easy task, inasmuch as almost every question extends into the unfathomable reaches of the spiritual world and reveals a huge number of connections and only through that can an examination of it be understood in its essence.
The centers of ahrimanized power on the earth do not act completely arbitrarily. They are reasonably enlightened concerning the laws and tendencies of natural development and do not obstruct its way. Should they do so, they would simply be carried off by the gigantic force of the evolutionary stream in which the immeasurable powers of the highest beings of the Hierarchies are working. In those centers they move with the stream, yet in doing so they are at once able to pervert it, to give it a false direction, to attempt to slow it down or accelerate it. They work to a special degree with people’s motivation, which in the epoch where man should come into individual freedom comes ever more into the attention of the activity of divine beings. We’ll show one example of how this is done. Rudolf Steiner convincingly demonstrated that we are situated in a stage of development where the centralized unitary state has outlived its age. Its social structure no longer enables, but rather hinders man’s individual development. For this reason it has the tendency of sliding into dictatorship. The time has come where it is necessary to inculcate a threefold social structure into state and to divide the unitary power into three autonomous forms of governance, for example, in Russia to construct the government (administration) of the state like a confederation consisting of three sovereign Dumas, parliaments or counsels (soviets) if you like, one of which would only occupy itself with economic life, another with the state, rights, political life and the third with the spiritual and cultural life. The general life of the country, having rejected the struggle for power and profit (gain), should be formed from the functional and creative interaction of these three counsels. And if Russia really wants to “collect (once lost) lands” and by virtue of her cultural-historical tasks she does bear that right, then given such a confederation of the threefold social structure she would be able to present her citizens the conditions for the free development of the spiritual life, the collaboration of free producers in associations united in the principle of brotherhood and the enjoyment of genuine civil equality? In such a case Russia would become extraordinarily attractive and other peoples would be drawn to her, their friendship and sympathy would surround her. All this shouldn’t simply remain a dream but should rather be an urgent requirement inasmuch as everything which persists on the principle of the unitary state is doomed.
“Orange revolutions” destroy, when it comes to the heart of the matter, what was doomed to die away in any case. And the divine Hierarchies have nothing to object to in this, just as in general they have nothing to object to with the just principle of dying in the world which is present in any development. Without death nothing new can be born. Yet people should think about how that principle should be correctly realized in social life, and namely – not destructively, through revolution, but rather through evolution, by way of transformations, metamorphoses. The unitary state must be metamorphosed into a threefold one. And had we done this in the 90’s as the Bolshevist Colossus tumbled down, – Russia today would be a model for other peoples. However what is actually happening? Actually the realization of a globalist project is underway. Unitary states are being torn down in order to be integrated in a unitary world state with one world administration, under the dictatorial control of which all of mankind will be subjected. In this way Ahrimanic powers pervert the goals and the very course of development.
The people themselves could manage a significant counteraction to perversions and substitutions of this kind if they understood what was happening with them. But this is precisely where it is attempted to hinder them. And after all there is much that is not difficult at all to comprehend. It suffices, for example, to recall the time under the rule of Yeltsin, as he said: “Let each take as much sovereignty as he can get away with”. Then western Ukraine would’ve up and taken it just like that! No one would have said a word. After all Russia kept her peace when gigantic territories were separated off from her. But the indicated forces need antagonism and hatred among the peoples of Russia and other peoples’ hatred for Russia in order to be able to hinder the great task: the preparation of the metamorphosis of the 5th, contemporary cultural epoch into the 6th. Foretelling such hatred, Rudolf Steiner said: “…not simply people will hate. Middle and Eastern Europe will be hated not by people, but by certain demons who will live within people. A time when Eastern Europe will be even more hated than Middle Europe, such a time is coming” (GA 180; 12 Jan. 1981, p. 251). And how many of these demons can now be seen in Kiev! And even in Moscow! (For example, an unfortunate “Ksyusha” on television pronounces: “Russia is a country of genetic scum and suckers!”; another lady (Yevgeniya Chirikova) seconds her: “The Russian nation is a cancerous tumor of humanity!” This is how the possession by demons of hatred from the left is being expressed, and the possession by them from the right summons us: “Join the ranks of cosmic-atomic Orthodoxy”!)
But if Eastern Europe does not fulfill its destiny other peoples will be charged with the task, for example the Latin American peoples, which, however, have not been prepared for this through evolution. The entire development of mankind would then be deflected even more in the direction of Ahrimanic intentions. And just these intention stand behind the events in Ukraine.
What is happening there wasn’t conceived in the moment, and what is interesting here: this wasn’t kept an absolute secret. Even without having recourse to knowledge of the supersensible it may be understood that what is happening is a part of a plan that had arisen already sometime at the end of the 19th century. A plan of this kind is realized by a large number of people, the majority of which are half-dilettantes which can’t be supposed to know too much, but they should know something. And for this they are given certain signs. Often these are political maps. They are published openly, but as if it was unconstrained speculations of separate people on a political topic which were completely non-binding. And when what is on these maps is realized – by then no one remembers about them anymore. In our other works we already spoke about one of these maps that was published in 1890 in the English satirical journal Truth. In it a map of Europe was shown as it would become after World War I! In Russia’s place is the word “desert”, which she indeed became after the Bolshevist “orange (red)” revolution. We will display this map; the drawings surrounding it can explain much to the historian who has specialized in that historical period. Everything together is called “The Kaiser’s Dream”. Of course, it wasn’t “dreamed” by the Kaiser – he was a profane in politics. It was “dreamed” then by circles of the British (and also, apparently, the Latin – in the sense of politicized Catholicism) occult-political establishment. And it was inspired by Ahriman. This “dream” also contained the plan for the “socialist experiment” of 1917 – 1991. In 1991 the “experiment” was completed, its results collected and set into the “treasure house” of knowledge necessary for the project of globalization. Now the time for a new experiment has come. And where should it be conducted than again in Eastern Europe, in the “desert”? A certain map gives the signal for this as well. It was published in the September edition of the journal Foreign Affairs in 1993. On that map (see below) we see a bold line dividing Russia from Western Europe. This “dividing line”, as the text explains, “may well be the eastern boundary of Western Christianity in the year 1500.” Thus that line cuts off parts of Ukraine and Belarus and in this way attributes them to the West. And as a whole it is the border dividing the “Eurasian civilization of Russia” from the rest of Europe.
On yet another map, published in 1990 in the English journal The Economist, this “Eurasian civilization” is shown wholly outlined with a bold line and depicted on the map of the world as an island and along with it a set of other “islands”: “Confuciana”, “Islamistan”, etc. Seeing as on a map of this kind everything has meaning, doesn’t the thickness of the line signify that these “civilizations” will be isolated from one another? And isolation is simultaneously confrontation. All in all, an enhanced version of Orwellian 1984 lies before us.
In this way, something was openly said about the separation of the west of Ukraine (and Belarus as well!) from the east already in 1993. Someone might object that what we have here are random coincidences, that a certain American political scientist, Huntington, in drawing his maps simply drew some kind of borders at a glance, and, in general, it’s all nothing more than subjective fantasy, etc. – To engage in disputes on such a topic is pointless. In the first place, because we are studying symptoms, and they must be observed in the most broad and lengthy duration (flow) possible. And therefore, merely recalling these maps, we turn our attention to what politicians of the most varied sha
des repeat in chorus: “Well let western Ukraine secede!”; “What do we want with these Banderovites and fascists!”, “It never belonged to Russia”; “Let it take Kiev along with it!” (a neo-Bolshevik said that), “Let Donbas go, too; its just an economic burden!”, etc. In Russia, in Ukraine and to some extent in the West, this can be heard like a kind of password which shows that the one pronouncing it is in on the “plan”.
But even more is being said. Here, for example, Kissinger said the following in a statement made for CNN: “Kiev used to be called Kiev Rous [sic] and so … the political and even more the religious development of Russia came out of Kiev. Then they split, but since the beginning of the end of the 17th [and] the beginning of the 18th century, Ukraine has been part of Russia. And I don’t know any Russian, whether they’re dissidents or pro-government, who does not consider Ukraine at least an essential part of Russian history. So the Russians cannot be indifferent to the future of Ukraine. … [T]o understand the Russian attitude, one has to look at history.” Here we hear the sympathetic cries for all of Ukraine’s return to Russia. And this was said not only by a former Secretary of State, but by a man who is to some extent a participant in those circles precisely where world history is planned.
That the outward ‘goodwill’ expresses itself in a heated confrontation accompanied by threat of sanctions, etc. should not perplex us. Here one must only remember how the Entente conducted itself after the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia. Today historians have thoroughly shown that the Bolsheviks were only able to retain power thanks to England and France. And then the outer Entente assisted their former allies – the White Guard. In general throughout its whole course the socialist experiment in Russia was conducted under the conditions of continual enmity with the West, for it was thus easier to mask its secret aims. And now there are no grounds to think that it will be otherwise.
Still, whatever the course of political events, neither its outer description, nor even its conspirological understanding can explain the essence of what is happening. In the search for this essence we should turn to the supersensible reality of a quite extensive segment of world history, in the course of which the formation of the peoples who now inhabit Europe took place. That kind of knowledge can only be drawn from Rudolf Steiner’s Anthroposophy.
Rudolf Steiner was extremely concerned with the development of Russo-Ukrainian relations at the beginning of the 20th century. In a lecture given winter of 1916-1917 (the exact date is unknown and it has yet to be published), he discusses a certain map which is not present in the transcript, but which was later found and published by the exceptional first anthroposophical political scientist, Karl Haise. On that map a plan for the future of Europe was also shown. Explaining is, Rudolf Steiner says, “[Т]he entire symbolism of these occult brotherhoods of the West aims to lay hold of single persons, indeed whole masses of peoples so that one can make them subservient to egotistical special interests. … The center from which these disastrous influences come is not the ‘Grand Orient de France’. One must seek it in England. The ‘Grand Orient’ … has been externalized. Many Russian Grand Dukes belonged to it. … It was high time in 1914 for this English brotherhood to carry out their intentions. For in a few years a war between France and Germany would be impossible for them to ignite. The fundamental ideas (a feeling of hateful revenge) would not have been able to be whipped up in France. Thus one took the first opportunity to ignite the war. … England (now here one must now speak of America. – Auth.) does not desire any peace for it has not achieved its goal – to establish an English world dominion after the model of the Roman Empire. The experience of the empire has been carefully studied, all of the mistakes that had been made there have been studied as well in order to avoid them. … Lloyd George is now the conscious tool of these powers; he is completely free of puritanism. … The shattering of Germany, the ruin of the so-called Latin race, custody over Russia – all the goals of this occult brotherhood should now be attained. Therefore all intentions of peace were brought to nothing. … If the French were to know what their English friends have planned for them … The moral decline of English statesmanship began in the 40’s of the last century. … their singular goal is to make all the peoples of the world their helots. … Why was Rasputin murdered? He didn’t want any war. His murderer had lived a long time in western countries, studied at Oxford – there you have the motivation behind the murder.” And if, Steiner continues, the events of the Russo-Japanese war are being studied, one must factor in one personage of the Russian court: Papus.
A person with liberal-democratic views, reading this statement from Rudolf Steiner, probably says to himself: well here’s another article from the conspirologists, in the opinion of which all the troubles in the world are always the masons’ fault! But, having said that, such a reader commits a great, one could say even a tragic mistake. Rudolf Steiner never took sides with any political, and much less with any occult-political power. And he also never engaged in their criticism. His task was to teach us the mastery of the method of historical symptomatology when we cognize the social-political phenomenology of our time. He is showing us that the modern human being is set in the center of a gigantic world battle. In it there are left and right poles, the existence of which, in political life, is governed by the battle between Ahrimanic and Luciferic forces. Both liberals and right-wing conservatives (it is among them that one finds conspirologists most often) are only dealing with the outer political opposition and take political life purely exoterically. And they, in essence, are dualists in politics. For them everything in the world is dual, including ethics. Each of these sides considers itself the absolute bearer of goodness, and the opposite side – of evil. In all these questions of world life they judge according to the principle: either/or. Rudolf Steiner proposed seeing a triad here. In this polar opposition man constitutes the primary element. This duality fights a battle precisely over him (and not over the acquisition of natural resources), in order to knock him off of his rightful evolutionary path. Man indeed has the task of neutralizing the destructive effect of this duality and to continually make it the driving force of human development. Its existence is inevitable and necessary. Its appearance was governed by the tasks of the human individuality’s development. In itself this duality is counterproductive and man is obliged to continuously find a solution to its tearing opposites. In choosing only one of its sides man destroys himself and enables only the destruction of the world. Rudolf Steiner shows in which way this opposition should be neutralized. In one of his lectures he speaks about it as follows: “It’s an either/or situation: Either efforts remain exclusively oriented towards the mere economical empire — in which case the fall of earthly civilization is the inevitable result — or spirit will be poured into this economic empire, in which case what was intended for earthly evolution will be achieved. I would like to say: Every morning we should bear this in mind very seriously and all activities should be organized according to this impulse. The world hour tolls with extreme urgency at present — with terrible urgency. In a certain sense we have reached the climax of platitudes. In a moment when all content has been squeezed out of platitudes, content which came to humanity previously but which no longer has any meaning, we must absorb real substantial content into our psychological and social life. We must be clear about the fact that this either/or must be decided by each individual for himself and that each must participate in this decision with his innermost force of soul. Otherwise he does not participate in the affairs of mankind.
But the attraction for illusion is especially strong in the age of platitudes. … The longing for truth must grow within human beings. Above all, in human beings must grow the longing for the liberation of spiritual life along with the knowledge that nobody has the right to call himself a Christian who has not grasped the saying: “My kingdom is not of this world.”
This means that the kingdom of Christ must become an invisible kingdom, an actual invisible kingdom, a kingdom of which one speaks as of invisible things. Only when spiritual science predominates will people speak of this kingdom. Not an outer church, nor an outer state, nor an outer economic empire can create this kingdom. Only the will of the individual who lives in a liberated spiritual life can create this kingdom” (GA 196, 22 Feb. 1920, p. 289–290).
In his lectures, Rudolf Steiner gives extensive material of exceptional importance in which he shows how in the course of cultural-historical development the idea of world domination was formed and occult-political power centers took shape. He calls these centers ‘secret societies’ and says that they are not simply masonic, but broadly use Masonry which is experiencing a fathomless decline in our time. A large role is also played by militant Catholicism, i.e. Jesuitism, in them, and a number of others. In characterizing the role of the Anglo-Saxon world in these societies as well as its goals and modus operandi, Rudolf Steiner says, “Right in the English-speaking population there is on the one hand a powerful contrast present between that which in the public outer consciousness appears as ideas, and that which those who were or are actually initiated into the events of the world process intend behind the curtains of world history.”
In general consciousness, in the best of aspirations, in the majority of the publications of that civilized part of the world rules the ideal of humanism. “Behind this outward aspiration stands the knowledge of the initiates, the knowledge of the tone-setting initiates. And without the public knowing about it, … flow the judgments, the trendsetting forces from the side of certain initiate circles into public opinion and into the course of events, of outer deeds which are dependent upon it.
Any society can open up here or there with nice programs and ideals. … But among them lives, without them knowing it, not only what they speak of, but rather there are ways and means to let what comes … from the initiates to enter all these things …
When one is in the position to follow what is taught and spoken inside of the circles of the initiates in this field, one knows that … the dreadful, horrible things that have been poured over the civilized world in the last five years were foretold there with great assurance. All these things were certainly no secret to the initiates of the English-speaking population, and through all the discussions the following discrepancy is found: on the one hand nice exoteric ideals: the ideal of humaneness with the actual belief in this ideal of humaneness in the most varied forms of the side of the uninitiated; on the other hand the doctrine, the conscious, rigorously advocated doctrine, that all that is Latin and Middle European culture must disappear from modern civilization, and that what the culture of the English-speaking population is must predominate, must achieve world dominance.” It is easier to speak of this now, seeing as much of it has already become reality. (ibid., 9 Jan. 1920, p.10–11).
In only citing separate excerpts from the communications of Rudolf Steiner about the topic we are concerned with, we well understand the impossibility of explaining the meaning of what is now taking place in an exhaustive manner. For this it would be necessary for the reader to engage in the systematic study of Rudolf Steiner’s works. We are only selecting separate key statements in order to emphasize at least one aspect of world, not only political, but practically all forms of the life of modern civilization, and precisely the fact that in it initiates set the tone, initiates in the sense that it always has in the Mysteries when a man is brought into this or that conscious connection with the beings of the supersensible world. And these present initiates are initiated into Ahrimanic mysteries. And that means that any kind of political battle with them cannot amount to anything and that every conversation with them from the position of humanism, democracy, etc. constitutes an idle waste of time. The only thing that human beings can do to oppose their dangerous activity is to understand it as well as possible and to appeal to the might of the divine Hierarchies, to Archangel Michael, the Spirit of our time and to Christ Himself, the countenance of which is now Michael.
But the complexity of our times is not exhausted with the existence of the Ahrimanic centers of initiation in the secret societies of the West. For the Luciferic initiates of the East also exist. Their particularity consists in the that fact that they, as Rudolf Steiner notes, “speak otherwise, or rather after the old custom of the Orient: they don’t speak at all. They have other ways to bring that which they actually desire into reality, into social reality. They wish to attain to not having a world dominion be sought after by anyone, for they are clear … that if there should be any relation of dominion on the earth, that this can only be that of the Anglo-American part of mankind. And they don’t want that. Therefore they actually intend to have the civilization of the earth disappear. They are indeed to the greatest degree familiar with the spiritual world, and they are of the conviction that mankind will better progress if it withdraws from the succeeding earthly incarnations. … For these initiates of the Orient the results of Leninism are no horror, for these initiates of the East say to the themselves: if these institutions of Leninism expand themselves more and more across the earth it will be the most certain way to bring earthly civilization to ruin. But this will be favorable exactly for those human beings who, through previous incarnations, have furnished themselves the possibility of living on without the earth.” (ibid., 9Jan. 1920, p. 12–13). (We will note regarding this last point that normal people, after passing through the corresponding evolution in the supersensible world after death again return to the earth. They experience an acute need for a new incarnation and the spiritual world expels them into it and begins to scorch them. And if the possibility of again incarnating on the earth were to be excluded, the existence of souls at the conclusion of the higher cycle would turn into a true hell. Only those who have mastered higher forms of consciousness on the earth would be capable of enduring that state further.)
Indeed, man is placed into oppositions of such kind. And his very first duty consists in knowing about this. In our time this has become especially relevant, inasmuch as the indicated world oppositions, as it seems, have the intention of resolving their dispute by combat.
Now we will continue our immediate consideration, having accumulated knowledge which enables us to understand it more deeply. In the as yet unpublished lecture cited above Rudolf Steiner further states: “in the 80’s [of the 19th cent.] in these occult brotherhoods the military goals of England were in all particulars quite plainly shown [further the map is discussed]. … The north of Greece forms a part of the South-Slavic [Yugoslavian – Trans.] domain under English rule. … Germany and Austria retain only their innermost regions. Poland, Lithuania, Galicia, Bukovina go to Russia. Two great empires should exist in Europe: an English and a Russian. The Russian Empire is held by the English Empire and is in her custody. … One must have a counterpole in Russia.”
Such a plan was drawn up. The events of 1939 took place accordingly. And from this follows that even the most terrible tyrants of recent history were mere marionettes, the performers of an alien will. Having understood this, the peoples of the world need to consider: is it worth it to them to flare up in hatred against each other, when they are in fact brothers in misfortune?
In a lecture held on the 22nd of December, 1917, i.e. already after the coup in Russia, Rudolf Steiner says: “in 1914 a world event began that at the beginning could have been called a war between the Entente and the forces of Middle Europe. But beneath that which was so called, something essentially different held sway, quite other enemies were confronting each other! And in our days a serious symptom, which, smoldering, holds sway under that which we cannot rightly call a war between the Entente and forces of Middle Europe, a symptom consisting in the tragic collision of the population of northern and southern Russia makes itself known to us, a significant symptom … of what smolders under events. People today don’t like that things are called by their rightful names…” (GA 179, p.156-157).
Shortly thereafter, in a lecture on the 24th of December 1917, Rudolf Steiner again takes up this subject, saying, that the signature of that which can be seen in “what was preparing itself in that moment in which these catastrophic events befell and which now … find their symptomatic expression in the mood between northern and southern Russia, in the unleashing of Russo-Ukrainian enmity (emphasis – Auth.). A symptom that takes on a much more significant light if one pays attention to the events that are preparing themselves, rather than all of what people today, in their comfort, would so much like to take for important events.” (GA 180, p.36).
Everything that Rudolf Steiner is saying is full of profound meaning, and, bearing this in mind, we would need to be bewildered about why he attributes such great significance to events which, however you approach them are, it would seem, all the same local ones. But our bewilderment would dissipate if we begin to study this problem not only spiritual-scientifically, but, as they say, from afar as well, and namely from those times which preceded the arising of cultural-historical epochs.
 Here we are again concerned with the ideology of Pan-slavism, according to which the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles must necessarily belong to Russia, and Constantinople as well as the historical capital of Orthodoxy, seeing as Christianity came to Kievan Rus’ from Byzantium. Just this had been promised to Russia by England and France if she would enter World War I. In the week before the fall of the monarchy an expedition for the conquest of Constantinople was already prepared under the leadership of General Kolchak. (Trans.)
 This is another aspect of the ideology of Panslavist Orthodoxy. There were two Romes: the first, Latin, the second – Byzantium and Moscow should become the third. Supposedly, it’s even the will of God and the historical mission of Russia. Behind that stands the political goal of unifying all Slavic peoples into one under the aegis of Moscow. A historical forgery even exists: the so-called “Testament of Peter the Great” in which he supposedly tells his descendants to capture the Straits and Constantinople. The axiom that if Russia tries to do it, it will immediately lead to war with Britain is well known to world politicians. (Trans.)
 Ksenia Sobchak, the daughter of the former governor of St. Petersburg, an associate of Boris Yeltsin. She became famous for television shows with heightened sexuality. The people took a disliking to her for it, and she in turn hated the people.
 The followers of Stepan Bandera, a radical western Ukrainian nationalist who collaborated with the Nazis. After the 1940s, the term “Bandererovites” (бандеровцы) has often been used to refer to all Ukrainian nationalism.
 Gérard Anaclet Vincent Encausse (July 13, 1865 – 25 October 1916), whose esoteric pseudonym was Papus, was the Spanish-born French physician, hypnotist, and popularizer of occultism, who founded the modern Martinist Order.